# Space Time Algebra¶

## Intro¶

This notebook demonstrates how to use clifford to work with Space Time Algebra. The Pauli algebra of space $$\mathbb{P}$$, and Dirac algebra of space-time $$\mathbb{D}$$, are related using the spacetime split. The split is implemented by using a BladeMap, which maps a subset of blades in $$\mathbb{D}$$ to the blades in $$\mathbb{P}$$. This split allows a spacetime bivector $$F$$ to be broken up into relative electric and magnetic fields in space. Lorentz transformations are implemented as rotations in $$\mathbb{D}$$, and the effects on the relative fields are computed with the split.

## Setup¶

First we import clifford, instantiate the two algebras, and populate the namespace with the blades of each algebra. The elements of $$\mathbb{D}$$ are prefixed with $$d$$, while the elements of $$\mathbb{P}$$ are prefixed with $$p$$. Although unconventional, it is easier to read and to translate into code.

[1]:

from clifford import Cl, pretty

pretty(precision=1)

# Dirac Algebra  D
D, D_blades = Cl(1,3, firstIdx=0, names='d')

# Pauli Algebra  P
P, P_blades = Cl(3, names='p')

# put elements of each in namespace
locals().update(D_blades)
locals().update(P_blades)


## The Space Time Split¶

To two algebras can be related by the spacetime-split. First, we create a BladeMap which relates the bivectors in $$\mathbb{D}$$ to the vectors/bivectors in $$\mathbb{P}$$. The scalars and pseudo-scalars in each algebra are equated.

[2]:

from IPython.display import SVG
SVG('_static/split.svg')

[2]:

[3]:

from clifford import BladeMap

bm = BladeMap([(d01,p1),
(d02,p2),
(d03,p3),
(d12,p12),
(d23,p23),
(d13,p13),
(d0123, p123)])


## Splitting a space-time vector (an event)¶

A vector in $$\mathbb{D}$$, represents a unique place in space and time, i.e. an event. To illustrate the split, create a random event $$X$$.

[4]:

X = D.randomV()*10
X

[4]:

-(7.0^d0) + (2.7^d1) - (13.3^d2) - (2.6^d3)


This can be split into time and space components by multiplying with the time-vector $$d_0$$,

[5]:

X*d0

[5]:

-7.0 - (2.7^d01) + (13.3^d02) + (2.6^d03)


and applying the BladeMap, which results in a scalar+vector in $$\mathbb{P}$$

[6]:

bm(X*d0)

[6]:

-7.0 - (2.7^p1) + (13.3^p2) + (2.6^p3)


The space and time components can be separated by grade projection,

[7]:

x = bm(X*d0)
x(0) # the time component

[7]:

-7.0

[8]:

x(1) # the space component

[8]:

-(2.7^p1) + (13.3^p2) + (2.6^p3)


We therefor define a split() function, which has a simple condition allowing it to act on a vector or a multivector in $$\mathbb{D}$$. Splitting a spacetime bivector will be treated in the next section.

[9]:

def split(X):
return bm(X.odd*d0+X.even)

[10]:

split(X)

[10]:

-7.0 - (2.7^p1) + (13.3^p2) + (2.6^p3)


The split can be inverted by applying the BladeMap again, and multiplying by $$d_0$$

[11]:

x = split(X)
bm(x)*d0

[11]:

-(7.0^d0) + (2.7^d1) - (13.3^d2) - (2.6^d3)


## Splitting a Bivector¶

Given a random bivector $$F$$ in $$\mathbb{D}$$,

[12]:

F = D.randomMV()(2)
F

[12]:

(0.3^d01) - (0.0^d02) - (0.9^d03) + (0.5^d12) - (1.9^d13) - (1.0^d23)


$$F$$ splits into a vector/bivector in $$\mathbb{P}$$

[13]:

split(F)

[13]:

(0.3^p1) - (0.0^p2) - (0.9^p3) + (0.5^p12) - (1.9^p13) - (1.0^p23)


If $$F$$ is interpreted as the electromagnetic bivector, the Electric and Magnetic fields can be separated by grade

[14]:

E = split(F)(1)
iB = split(F)(2)

E

[14]:

(0.3^p1) - (0.0^p2) - (0.9^p3)

[15]:

iB

[15]:

(0.5^p12) - (1.9^p13) - (1.0^p23)


## Lorentz Transformations¶

Lorentz Transformations are rotations in $$\mathbb{D}$$, which are implemented with Rotors. A rotor in G4 will, in general, have scalar, bivector, and quadvector components.

[16]:

R = D.randomRotor()
R

[16]:

-0.4 + (0.4^d01) - (0.6^d02) - (1.0^d03) - (0.4^d12) - (0.2^d13) - (1.7^d23) + (0.9^d0123)


In this way, the effect of a lorentz transformation on the electric and magnetic fields can be computed by rotating the bivector with $$F \rightarrow RF\tilde{R}$$

[17]:

F_ = R*F*~R
F_

[17]:

(4.1^d01) - (1.0^d02) + (9.1^d03) - (2.5^d12) + (9.4^d13) + (3.0^d23)


Then splitting into $$E$$ and $$B$$ fields

[18]:

E_ = split(F_)(1)
E_

[18]:

(4.1^p1) - (1.0^p2) + (9.1^p3)

[19]:

iB_ = split(F_)(2)
iB_

[19]:

-(2.5^p12) + (9.4^p13) + (3.0^p23)


## Lorentz Invariants¶

Since lorentz rotations in $$\mathbb{D}$$, the magnitude of elements of $$\mathbb{D}$$ are invariants of the lorentz transformation. For example, the magnitude of electromagnetic bivector $$F$$ is invariant, and it can be related to $$E$$ and $$B$$ fields in $$\mathbb{P}$$ through the split,

[20]:

i = p123
E = split(F)(1)
B = -i*split(F)(2)

[21]:

F**2

[21]:

-3.9 - (1.8^d0123)

[22]:

split(F**2) == E**2 - B**2 + (2*E|B)*i

[22]:

True